Culture and art of Armenia
Culture and art of Armenia
Due to its geopolitical location, with access to Europe and Asia, Armenia is the bearer of European and Asian cultural tradition that speaks of its uniqueness.
Armenia is rightly called one of the cradles of world civilization. At the root of the Armenian culture is the culture of Urartu civilization. Heritage includes the cities of Urartu fortresses, metalworking culture cuneiform tablets and unique to the world of ancient irrigation systems. During the IV century BC – III in. BC Armenian culture develops under the influence of Hellenism.
Armenia’s contribution to world culture is impressive. One of the major components of Armenian cultural heritage is a unique art of making cross-stones – khachkars. Openwork crosses from huge stone slabs, symbolizing the victory of Christ over death, made in Armenia since the IV century to the present day .. Works of masters Momik, Vardan and many others can be seen in the monasteries all over Armenia. The largest collection of khachkars in the world is a cemetery in Noratus.
Due to its geopolitical location, with access to Europe and Asia, Armenia is the bearer of European and Oriental traditions, which indicates its uniqueness.
In the V century Mesrop Mashtots invented the Armenian alphabet and the translation of the Bible into the Armenian language: the translation of the Holy Scriptures is called “Queen of translations” The period of flowering of Armenian culture Armenian theologians create their fundamental works and translate religious texts from other languages It is born during this period… miniature art in Armenia. today, this art can be found in the Matenadaran. Under the auspices of the Armenian Church were created by universities Gladzor, Tatev, Noravank, Sis, Ani. in the Middle Ages flourishing national historiographical school in Armenia, the development of which is associated with the names of the chroniclers Movses . Khorenatsi Agatangeghosi, Pavstos Buzand, Lazar Parpetsi, Stepanos Taronatsi, Kirakos Gandzaketsi first set of Armenian laws develops jurist and fabulist Mkhitar Gosh Proceedings mathematician Anania Shirakatsi and doctor Mkhitar Heratsi become known far beyond the borders of Armenia in the tenth century begins the era rannearmyanskogo Renaissance..: Monastery in Narekskom creates its lyrical and mystical poems theologian, philosopher and poet Grigor Narekatsi. A striking representatives of this era spanned several centuries, is the author of hymns sharakans Nerses Shnorhali and poet Konstantin Erznkatsi.
Armenia called stone country: there are almost all known natural building materials – marble, basalt, travertine, tuff, granite of various colors and textures. This was the reason that Armenia has widely developed the art of architecture. Armenia – a country of builders and builders.
From pre-Christian monuments the most important is the sun temple of Garni (I c.) – The summer residence of Armenian kings. The flowering of Armenian architecture associated with the adoption of Christianity: IV century – the foundation of the Cathedral of Holy Etchmiadzin, VII century – Church of St. Echmiadzin Hripsime and St. Gayane. Beautiful creations of Armenian architecture, Zvartnots Temple (641-661 gg.) And one of the capitals of Armenia, Dvin, come down to us in ruins after the earthquake. In Armenia preserved churches, temples, fortress with VI -XVII centuries. Armenia is called an open-air museum. Architectural masterpieces of Armenian inscribed on UNESCO’s World Heritage List.
The history and tradition of Armenian music is inextricably linked with the feature of national instruments (duduk, kamancha, zurna, etc.), color and syncretism of Armenian folk dances and creativity ashugs. Among them stands out unique Sayat-Nova – singer, poet and composer of the XVIII century. World fame and glory won great Armenian composer Komitas (1869-1935) – author of sacred music. Komitas has deciphered the ancient Armenian notes – Haza. All the world’s greatest known Armenian opera “Anush” by Armen Tigranyan and “Almast” Alexander Spendiaryan. Aram Khachaturian became one of the greatest composers of the twentieth century: masterpieces of the author are the ballet “Spartacus” and “Masquerade”.
Armenian national epic “David of Sasun” displays the values and ideals of the Armenian people. Armenian literature – one of the most ancient literatures of the world began to develop from the middle of the V century after the creation of the Armenian alphabet in 405. V century is considered the “golden age” in the history of Armenian literature. Armenian literature of the Middle Ages breaks down into historical, religious, poetry, prose and legal.
Armenia gave the world a unique work of art. The brightest representatives – Martiros Saryan, Gevorg Bashigdzhanyan, Grigor Khanjyan and Hovhannes Aivazovsky, Minas Avetisyan.
Armenian culture is rich in masterpieces of arts and crafts. Armenia Masters hold ancient secrets of metal processing, the manufacture of jewelry, weapons, carpets, ceramics and wood, fabric. Articles Armenian masters are filled with originality Armenian motifs, ornaments and symbols.
Nature of Armenia
The small size of Armenia can see areas with completely different vegetation and landscapes: Blooming Ararat Valley, cosmic landscapes of volcanic uplands, the gigantic peaks of Mount Aragats with its mighty slopes in carpets of alpine meadows, stunning mountain Sea – Lake Sevan with clear and clean water, the valley rapid mountain rivers with cool forests of Dilijan and Jermuk, “stone symphony” – epic basalt canyons rivers Azat and Arpa, serpentines of the Silk Road with alpine panorama, undaunted ridge Zangezur with thickets of wild pomegranate and almond, oak groves Meghri and steppes Vayots Dzor …
Armenia – a mountainous country, not landlocked. Armenia is surrounded by mountains, mountain ranges, landscapes and only 10% of the territory is covered by forest areas. Most of the forest is located in Tavush, Lori and Syunik regions.
several climatic zones are represented in Armenia: this is due to a large extent, the relief features of the country. The highest point of Armenia was Mount Ararat (5165 m) until 1921, when Mount Ararat with other lands crossed Turkey, Armenia became the highest point of Mount Aragats – 4090 m.
The largest rivers – the Kura and Araks, the rest of the river system comes out of them. This small mountain river with clear and icy water, but not suitable for navigation. In Armenia, several alpine lakes, the largest of them – Sevan. Lake Sevan is the largest in the Caucasus, as well as one of the largest alpine lakes in the Earth’s freshwater.
Thanks to the geolocation, Armenia is rich in its flora and fauna. Flora is represented by more than 3200 species of plants .. Spring Armenian mountains and valleys dotted with flowers of great beauty: an aerial view of Armenia seems strange pink mountains. Armenia – homeland of apricot, here in abundance grow different kinds of apple, pear, pomegranate, grapes, figs, various berries, walnut. Armenia is rich in medicinal plants, which uses the Armenian people from ancient times. Armenia’s fauna includes 450 species of vertebrates, more than 10 thousand species of invertebrates, 304 species of birds, 24 species of fish, 20 species of snakes and many other species. In the forests inhabited by deer Armenia, Syrian bear, wild cat, fox, lynx, leopard, spotted deer Ussuri. Almost two-thirds of the birds known in Europe, are also found in Armenia.
Many mountains, cliffs, waterfalls, lakes and caves of Armenia are considered natural monuments due to its uniqueness and natural origin (lake – Sevan, Kari, Parz, waterfalls – Shakiysky, Tsolk, Trchkan, caves – Mozrovskaya, Bear, Lastiver and natural wonder “stone symphony “- basalt columns in the form of organ pipes in Garni gorge.
To preserve and enrich the forest areas of Armenia national reserves were created: Dilijan, Ijevan, Khosrov, Shikahogh and Erebuni Reserve, National Park Sevan lake and pine forest in Tsakhkadzor, arboretum in Stepanavan.
Economy of Armenia
The main economic partners – Russia, the EU, Iran, Georgia, USA. In Armenia, the development of construction, mining, metal processing, chemical, electronics, food industry, production of electricity.
Armenia is rich in ore deposits, especially a lot of copper. Known deposits of manganese, molybdenum, copper, iron, zinc, lead, tin, silver and gold. There are huge reserves of building stone, particularly easy to handle volcanic tuff. There are many mineral springs. Armenia conducted a large scale mining and processing of building materials: basalt, perlite, limestone, pumice, marble, etc. to produce a lot of cement.. Non-ferrous metals produces aluminum and molybdenum.
The country has one nuclear power plant, three thermal power plants and hydropower plants 9. Most of the population is employed in the service sector and industry. One of the priority areas of the economy is tourism.
SYMBOLS OF ARMENIA
The images that are associated with Armenia.
1. WHEEL OF ETERNITY
Ancient Armenian character in a helical wheel, similar to the sun. Another name – Arevahach (solar cross). Found everywhere – from carving on ancient churches to modern emblems and logos of companies – Armenian eternity sign – one of the most important symbols in the culture of Armenia. It symbolizes the moment of movement, life transformation into death and death into life. Found in Armenian Christian monuments from the V century.
When most people think about the signs displaying the music on the letter, they represent music paper with incised lines and musical keys. Literally means HAZ dash, dash. This ancient Armenian music notation singing character. The Armenians had their own system of notation called “Haza”, which eventually became so complex that people have forgotten how to read it. Later haz system simplified and brought back to life and is still taught in Armenia as one of the types of musical notation. One can not help wonder of harmony and symphony of images “petrified” of music, which is surrounded by the ancestors themselves.
Armenian stone crosses carved by hand out of the tufa. Each cross-stone has its own pattern, a pattern, each has its own history dating back centuries. Historically, these cross-stones – and that is how they are called in Armenian – decorated the graves in cemeteries, but also used (and used) for the decoration of religious and cultural sites. For excision of khachkars needed art master, genius talent and a lot of time. No nation in the world does not use such a powerful and long-lasting way to express their faith in God.
At the bottom of the cross-stone cut out of the sun symbol, or a sign of eternity, on which, in the center, cut out a cross – the symbol of Christ’s crucifixion. Sam khachkar usually surrounded by five patterns or images of grapes and leaves. Typical of Armenian cross-stones to represent branches palm trees, symbolizing the Resurrection of Christ.
4. The six-pointed star
Contrary to popular belief, the hexagram (six-pointed star), is currently used as the “Star of David”, was originally used as far back as the 3rd millennium BC Armenia as one of the many cultural symbols, and was part of the religion and culture. Although the six-pointed star is commonly associated with Judaism, it is often found in ancient Armenian khachkars and carving on church bas-reliefs. At the center of such a star wheel is eternity.
5. Armenian carpet
How beautiful it bright color, geometric pattern and mysterious characters! This traditional art form spread throughout the Armenian Highland, and although all Armenian carpets have stylistic similarities, villagers across the country to create drawings that are characteristic for each individual region. Especially famous Armenian carpets from Artsakh.
The main difference between the Armenian carpets is that as the ornamental motifs used stylized images of animals and people. Carpet weaving as a form of decorative art developed since the pre-Christian period, and from time immemorial been an integral part of everyday life.
Mount Ararat, where images are everywhere – from the coat of arms of Armenia T-shirts to the national football team – one of the most recognizable symbols of the Armenian culture. This is the foundation on which grew the Armenian nation, the place where, according to the Bible, Noah’s ark. The double peak of Mount Ararat – an integral part of the entire Armenian. Mountain consists of two fused bases of the mountains: and Sis Masis, which also are known as Greater and Lesser Ararat.
symbol of fertility, prosperity and good luck with a unique taste of pomegranate is used as a sign of Armenian culture everywhere – from craft to art.
Color of Pomegranates like blood and vitality, and grains are a symbol of fertility. The symbolism of the pomegranate is due, firstly, its color, and secondly, the form, and third, the internal structure, embodying the principle of the unity and integrity of the multiple and diverse.
In one of the ancient rites of the Armenian bride should break a pomegranate on the wall – and the more crumbled from the impact of grenades, the more it has to be born children. In recent decades, garnet is perceived as a symbol of scattered worldwide Armenian Diaspora. Picture of the famous director Sergey Parajanov’s “Sayat-Nova” of the great Armenian poet called “Color of Pomegranate”, highlighting the most symbolic for the Armenians concept.
According to the legend at the famous Mount Ararat in the Flood Noah’s Ark stopped. When the water receded, Noah came down from the mountain and began to live in the valley. Together with his sons he began growing grapes. It is believed that humanity first tasted wine when tasted Noah invigorating drink at the foot of Mount Ararat. Two and a half thousand years ago, Herodotus testified that from that region exported excellent wines. They were high-quality, seasoned and diverse. Armenia – a country with an ancient tradition of growing grapes. Vine is cultivated here for about 3000 years. The sun shines 300 days of the year in Armenia. Due to the unique climate of Ararat grapes more sun product than land.
Brandy production in Armenia was founded in 1887 the first guild merchant Nerses Tairyanom. On the territory of the former zrivanskoy fortress he built the first wine-vodka distillery. Brandy production has become the most advanced sector of the Armenian economy. At all times, the Armenian brandies won prizes, usually the first place, for which he became known in many countries around the world.
Apricot – is the undisputed symbol of Armenia. This fruit was Armenian farmers were selected long before our era, then the merchants brought him to Rome, where it became widespread and continued his journey through Europe. Apricot tree wood is the source of the most beloved and well-known Armenian musical instrument, it is called the duduk. If you do not know the color orange on the national flag of Armenia, the apricot symbolizes.
Duduk – reed woodwind instrument with a double reed. It is a handset with 9-hole game.
Options common among the peoples of the Caucasus, the Middle East and the Balkans.
In 2005, the Armenian duduk music was recognized as a masterpiece of the World Intangible Cultural Heritage by UNESCO.
The Armenian duduk is also known as tsiranapoh that can literally be translated as “Apricot pipe” or “soul of apricot tree.”
If this term is not occupied the alchemists, tuff to Armenia was called the philosopher’s stone. At least immortality built from this material has already been secured temples.
The Armenian tuff – stone “generalist”: out of it and build barns and homes, and churches. Just temples and brought to this bright and light stone first glory. Tuff has become the hallmark of the Armenian cities – Yerevan, especially that not only so-called “pink city”.
“Forget-Me” – the emblem of the 100th anniversary of the start of the Armenian Genocide. The symbol was designed in 2015 and became widespread in Armenia, Armenian Diaspora and among sympathizers.
The logo expresses the theme of eternal memory, and is designed for a symbolic reminder of the past, present and future of the Armenian people. “Favorite colors symbolize the past, the tragedy of the Armenian Genocide, the present and the future”]. Composite flower elements have the following meaning:
Past: black center symbolizes the suffering of 1915 and the dark consequences Eenotsida.
This light-purple petals symbolize the unity of the small Armenian communities around the world rallied together in remembrance of the 100th anniversary.